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Table of Contents

UK Department for International Development (DFID)


The Department For International Development (DFID) is a United Kingdom government department. It was separated from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1997. The goal of the department is “to promote sustainable development and eliminate world poverty”.

Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS)

Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) is a national agency of the Government of India, under Ministry of Earth Sciences. It provides ocean information and advisory services to the society, industry, government and scientific community through sustained ocean observations and constant improvements through systematic and focused research.

Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC)

The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) is one of two tsunami warning centers that are operated by NOAA in the United States. Headquartered in EwaBeach, Hawaii, the PTWC is part of an international tsunami warning system (TWS) program and serves as the operational center for TWS of the Pacific issuing bulletins and warnings to participating members and other nations in the Pacific Ocean area of responsibility .

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. NOAA warns of dangerous weather, charts seas and skies, guides the use and protection of ocean and coastal resources, and conducts research to improve understanding and stewardship of the environment. It is headquartered in Washington DC.

Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO)

CSTO or Tashkent Treaty is a military alliance formed in 2002. Its 7 members include: Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. It grew out of the Commonwealth of Independent States framework. The members are not allowed to join other military alliances and aggression against one signatory is perceived as an aggression against all.


Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

CIS is a regional organization of the former Soviet Republics established in 1991 after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It has nine members: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan and Ujbekistan. It possesses coordinating powers in the realm of trade, finance, lawmaking and security.

Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC or EurAsEC)

Economic union aimed at creating common market. Members: Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan.

Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS)

An intergovernmental organization of low-lying coastal and small island countries. Established in 1990, its main purpose is to strengthen their voice in addressing global climate change. It has 42 members.


The 2009 UN Climate Change Conference, also known at the Copenhagen Summit was held in Copenhagen in December 2009. At the summit, the Copenhagen Accord was adopted which recognized climate change is one of the greatest challenges and that actions should be taken to keep temperature increases to below 2 degree C. It does not contain commitments for reduced emissions that would be necessary to achieve that aim.

Integrated Defence Staff

The Integrated Defence Staff and associated structures have been created under the provisions of Government of India, Ministry of Defence in 2001 following the recommendations of the Kargil Review Committee.

It acts as point organisation for jointmanship in MoD which integrates policy, doctrine, war fighting and procurement by employing best management  practices. The Chief of Integrated Defence Staff to the Chiefs of Staff Committee (CISC) will support the Chairman and the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC) in the optimal performance of their role and functions. The present CISC is Air Marshal S C Mukul.

Strategic Forces Command (SFC)

The Indian Strategic Forces Command (or Strategic Nuclear Command) is responsible for the management and administration of the country’s tactical and strategic nuclear weapons stockpile. It was created in 2003 and forms a part of India’s Nuclear Command Authority.

Nuclear Command Authority (India)

The Nuclear Command Authority (NCA) of India is the nodal agency for all command, control and operational decisions regarding India’s nuclear weapon stockpile.

Press Council of India (PCI)

PCI, setup in 1966, is a statutory, quasi judicial body in India that governs the conduct of the print and broadcast media. It adjudicates the complaints against and by the press for violation of ethics and for violation of the freedom of the press respectively. It is protected by the constitution and its actions may not be questions unless proven ultra vires.

Chairman: Justice G N Ray

International Whaling Commission (IWC)

IWC is an international body set up in 1946 by the terms of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW) to provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks. IWC has now become dominated by governments opposed to commercial whaling. Hence, in 1986 IWC adopted a moratorium on commercial whaling which still continues.

Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL)

DFRL is an Indian defence laboratory of the DRDO located established in 1961 in Mysore. It conducts research and development of technologies and products in the area of food science and technology to cater the varied food challenges for the Indian Armed Forces.

International Security Assistance Force (ISAF)

ISAF is a NATO led security mission in Afghanistan established by the UNSC in 2001. As of 2008, its troops number around 55000.

Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR)

DIHAR is a laboratory of DRDO located in Leh.  Located at 3,500 meters above mean sea-level, DIHAR is doing pioneering research to not only improve the quality of life of our soldiers but also pass on spin-offs to civilian sectors for their benefit. It is currently working on a project of greening Ladakh with sustainable plant cultivation.

Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT)

The Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) is an international partnership of 81 nations and four official observers who are committed to working individually and collectively to implement a set of shared nuclear security principles. The mission of the GICNT is to strengthen global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to nuclear terrorism by conducting multilateral activities that strengthen the plans, policies, procedures, and interoperability of partner nations. The United States and Russia serve as Co-Chairs of the GICNT. <Launched in 2006 by Bush and Putin>

National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS)

Estd. 1983

It is a national level inter-agency system for integrated natural resources management in the country. To support the optimal utilization of country’s natural resources it adopts various advanced technologies of satellite and aerial remote sensing, GIS, precise positioning system, precise positioning systems etc. It is supported by the Planning Commission. Department of Space is the nodal agency for implementing NNRMS and its secretariat is housed in the ISRO HQ, Bangalore.


The National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur was established in 1958. It is devoted to research and innovations in environmental science and engineering besides solving a range of problems posed by industry, government and public. It has five zonal laboratories at Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Mumbai.

World Bank

Estd. 1944

Members: 186

President: Robert Zoellick

HQ: Washington DC

WB is different from the WB Group. The World Bank comprises of two institutions: IBRD and International Development Association (IDA) whereas the WB Group has these two as well as three more: IFC, Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), and International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).

WB is one of the five institutions created at the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944.

National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR)

Estd. 1988

HQ: Vasco da Gama, Goa

Director: Rasik Ravindra

It is an autonomous research and development institution under the Ministry of Earth Sciences, GoI. It is the nodal organization for the co-ordination and implementation of the Indian Antarctic Programme, including the maintenance of India’s permanent station in Antarctica.

National Institute of Oceanography

Estd. 1966

HQ: Dona Paula, Goa

It is one of the 38 constituent laboratories of CSIR. The focus of research is on observing and understanding the special oceanographic features that the North Indian basin offers.

Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS)

Estd. 1883

HQ: Mumbai

It is one of the largest NGOs in India engaged in conservation and biodiversity research. It supports many research efforts through grants and publishes the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society.

Translational Health Science and Technology

Under the Department of Biotechnology, GoI.

Research collaboration institute for biosciences. Located in Faridabad.

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)

Estd. 1942

HQ: New Delhi

Chairman: Prime Minister of India

Director General: Samir K Brahmachari

It is an autonomous body and R&D organization with 39 laboratories and 50 field stations across the nation. It has developed various technologies relating to engineering, sciences, molecular biology, chemicals, food, petroleum, leather and environment. CSIR also awards the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar prize for Science and Technology annually for notable research in science and technology. It is named after CSIR’s founding director Dr. Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar.


Airports Authority of India

Estd. 1995

By merging the international Airports Authority of India and the National Airports Authority. Manages 12 airports which includes 11 international airports. It handles the passenger facilities, maintaining and strengthening the airport infrastructure, air navigation services and security.

Quality Council of India

QCI was set up in 1997 jointly by the GoI and Indian Industry represented by ASSOCHAM, CII and FICCI, to establish and operate national accreditation structure and promote quality through National Quality Campaign. The Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, Ministry of Commerce and Industry is the nodal ministry for QCI.

Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertilizers Limited

Estd. 1956

One of the leading producers of fertilizers in India. Awarded the Miniratna status.

Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS)

Started in 2008

Provides a regional forum through which the ‘Chiefs-of-Navy’ of all littoral states of the Indian Ocean Region can periodically meet to constructively engage one another through the creation and promotion of regionally relevant mechanisms, events and activities.

National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC)

Estd. 1975

To plan, promote and organize an integrated and efficient development of hydroelectric power in all aspects. It now, also includes Geothermal, Tidal and Wind energy.

PowerGrid Corporation of India (PGCIL)

Estd. 1992

HQ: Gurgaon

Chairman: S K Charurvedi (MD as well)

Status: Navratna.

It is one of the largest transmission utilities in the world. It wheels about 45 pc of the total power generated in the country on its transmission network. It has also diversified into Telecom business.


Standardisation Testing and Quality Certification (STQC)

It is an attached office of the Department of Information Technology (DIT), GoI, provides quality assurance services in the area of electronics and IT through countrywide network of laboratories and centres. The services include testing, calibration, training and certification to public and private organizations. In July 2010, it was selected as the Biometric Certification Agency for UIDAI.


Estd. 1990

Initially a wholly owned subsidiary of IDBI. Initially it worked as a re-financing agency to banks and state level financial institutions for their credit to small industries, it has now expanded its activities and provides direct credit to SMEs. It has floated several other entities. The Credit Guarantee Fund Trust for Micro and Small Enterprises provides guarantee to banks for collateral free loans extended to SME. SIDBI Venture Capital Ltd is a venture capital company focussed at SME. SME Rating Agency of India Ltd (SMERA) provides composite ratings to SME. SIDBI is included in the list of top 30 development banks of the world in the 2001 ranking of The Banker, London.

Central Institute of Indian Languages


Under the ministry of HRD. Established to co-ordinate the development of Indian languages.


Power Finance Corporation

Rural Electrification Corporation

Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction

Estd. 1987

Under: Department of Economic Affairs

It is established under the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985 (SICA). The main objective of SICA is to determine sickness and expedite the revival of potentially viable units or closure of unviable units.

Foreign Investment Promotion Board

FIPB is a government body that offers a single window clearance for proposals on foreign direct investment in the country that are not allowed access through the automatic route (restricted sectors). Secretary, Economic Affairs is the Chairman.

Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

Estd. 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization and UNEP.

Tasked with evaluating the risk of climate change caused by human activity.

International Seed Treaty

Aka International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

Approved: 2001 at FAO                                 Adopted: 2007                                  Signatories: 125 countries

Aims at guaranteeing food security through conservation, exchange and sustainable use of world’s genetic resources for food and agriculture. Recognizes farmer rights and allows individuals to contribute to the gene banks.

World Economic Forum

Started in 1971 by Claus Schwab.

HQ: Geneva

Non-profit foundation. Organizes its annual meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Funded by 1000 companies. Has an observer status in EcoSoc. Also organizes the annual meeting of New Champions every year in China. It publishes the following reports:

  1. Global Competitiveness Report
  2. Global Information Technology Report
  3. Global Gender Gap Report
  4. Global Risks Report
  5. Global Travel and Tourism Report
  6. Global Enabling Trade Report

Gives the Technology Pioneers Awards

National Fisheries Development Board

  • HQ: Hyderabad
  • Autonomous orgn under the administratie control of the Dept of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries, Min of Agriculture.
  • Established to work towards blue revolution with a focus on to increase the fish production of the country to a level of 10.3 million tonnes.
  • The period of implementation of the various activities of the board is from 2006-12

Indian Meteorological Department

National Water Development Agency

Estd. 1982

It is registered society under the ministry of water resources. Functions: To carry out detailed surveys and investigations of possible reservoir sites and interconnecting links to establish the feasibility of projects


Financial Stability Board

An international body that monitors and makes recommendations about the global financial system. Established after the 2009 G-20 London Summit. Successor to the Financial Stability Forum. The board includes all G-20 major economies, FSF members and the European Commission.

Basel Committee on Banking Supervision

Is a committee of banking supervisory authorities that was established in 1975. It provides a forum for regular cooperation on banking supervisory matters. Its objective is to enhance understanding of key supervisory issues and improve the quality of banking supervision worldwide.

International Bodies

Name Established HQ President Members Purpose Remarks
ASEAN+3 ASEAN, China, Japan, North Korea
International Energy Forum (IEF) Riyadh IEA, OPEC, BRIC, Mexico, South Africa and others Engage in a dialogue for increasing importance to global energy security World’s largest recurring gathering of energy ministers. IEF countries account for >90% of global oil and gas supply and demand.
International Monetary Fund Report: World Economic Outlook, Global Financial Stability Report
NATO 1949 Brussels Sec-gen: Anders Fogh Rasmussen 2010 summit in Lisbon
UNCTAD 1964 Publication: Trade and Development Report, World Investment Report
International Union of Railways (UIC) 1922 199 countries International rail transport industry body. To promote rail transport at world level and meet the challenges of mobility and sustainable development
International Hockey Federation 1924 Lausanne, Switzerland Leandro Negre (Spain) 124 Organizes 6 major hockey events: Olympic Games, World Cup, Junior WC, Champions Trophy, Indoor Hockey WC, Champions Challenge
International Air Transport Association (IATA) 1945 Montreal Giovanni Bisigani It is an international trade group of airlines. It represents some 230 airlines comprising of 93 percent of scheduled international air traffic
Arab League 1945 Cairo 22 members, 4 observers


Observers: India, Eritrea, Brazil, Venezuela

Established through the Alexandria Protocol


Six original members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria


Institutions: Arab League Education, Cultural and Scientific Org (ALESCO), Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAFU)


India became an observer in 2007

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 1957 Vienna Yukiya Amano 151 countries Promote peaceful use of nuclear energy.

Inhibit its use for military purpose

Serves as an inter-governmental forum for scientific and technical cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear technology
World Food Programme 1960/1963 Rome Josette Sheeran 36 Under the FAO of UN
United States Agency for International Development (USAID) 1961 by Pres Kennedy Washington DC Rajiv Shah Responsible for administering civilian foreign aid Motto: From the American People
Non-Aligned Movement 1961 in Belgrade 118 1955: Bandung conference
Asian Development Bank (ADB) 1966 Manila, Philippines Haruhiko Koruda 67: Members are from the region as well as outside the region To provide concessional credit to needy members
ASEAN 1967 Jakarta 10: Indonesia, Malaysia, Phillipines,  Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, Brunei, Myanmar, Camobdia Accelerate economic growth, social progress, cultural development of its members. Peace and stability in the region. Opportunities for member countries to discuss differences peacefully. Geo-political and economic organization. First summit: Bali (1976)

16th summit: Vietnam (2010)

17th summit: Indonesia (2010)


First India-ASEAN summit in 2002 in Phnom Penh

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) 1967 Geneva Francis Gurry 184 To encourage creative activity, to promote the protection of intellectual property throughout the world. One of the  16 specialized agencies of the United Nations
United Nations Population Fund 1969 Focuses on Health, Gender Equality and population and development strategies.
Nuclear Suppliers’


1974/75 (rotating chair) Hungary for 2009-10 46 countries

(EU observer)

Reducing nuclear proliferation by controlling the export and re-transfer of nuclear material. Founding Members (7): Canada, West Germany, France, Japan, USSR, UK, US.

China became a member in 2004.

Was formed in response to Pokharan 1.

Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) 1975 Abuja, Nigeria Goodluck Jonathan (Nigeria) 15: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo,  Niger (suspended), Ivory Coast (suspended) One of the pillars of the African Economic Community Created by the Treaty of Lagos. <Lagos is in Nigeria>
European Space Agency (ESA) 1975 Paris 18 Intergovernmental organization for exploration of space.
Gulf Cooperation Council 1981 6: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE Trade bloc.
International Organisation of Securities Commissions 1983 Madrid, Spain Security commissions from 100 different countries
Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering 1989: On the initiative of G7 Paris (at the OECD HQ) Luis Corral 36 To combat money laundering and terrorist financing. It has issued Forty Recommendation and Special Recommendations on Terrorist Financing India became a member in 2010.


Several international organisations including the IMF and WB are observer members

MERCOSUR 1991 Montevideo, Uruguay 4: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay Economic Union Founded by the Treaty of Asuncion
Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) 1996 in Bangkok European Commission, EU’s 27 states, ASEAN+3 (China, Japan, South Korea), India, Mongolia, Pakistan It is an inter-regional forum. Biannual meetings.


India was admitted at the Beijing summit in 2008.

2010 summit (8th summit): Brussels.

In 2010, Russia, New Zealand and Australia also became members.  VP, Hamid Ansari represented India.


First summit: Bangkok

9th summit: Laos


Total of 45 partners

International Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) 1998 Marina Del Rey, CA Responsible for managing the assignment of domain name and IP address
Shanghai Cooperation Organization 2001 (Previously known as Shanghai five. Became SCO when Uzbekistan joined in 2001) Beijing 6: China, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan.

4 observers: India, Iran, Mongolia, Pakistan

2 dialogue partners: Belarus, Sri Lanka

4 Guest: Afghan, ASEAN, CIS, Turkmenistan

First summit, 2001, Shanghai

2010 summit: Tashkent

2011 Summit: Astana


Head: 2009-10: China

2010-11: Kyrgyzstan

African Union 2002 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo (Pres of Equitorial Guinea) 53 African Nations Morocco is the only African state which is not a member.
East Asia Summit 2005 ASEAN, Australia, New Zealand, China, India, South Korea, Japan A forum held by the 16 countries. ASEAN is the major player. First summit: Kualalumpur, 2005

Fifth summit: Hanoi, 2010


US and Russia to join at the Hanoi summit after which the number of members would become 18.

Organisation of Islamic Conference 1969 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Sec Gen: Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, Turkey 57 Official languages: Arabic, English, French


India is not a member


Next head: Kazakhstan

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) 1989 Singapore Chair: Japan 21 Pacific Rim countries To promote free trade and economic cooperation throughout Asia-Pacific region China and Taiwan are represented separately


India is not a member.

Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) 1973. renamed as OSCE in 1995 Vienna Sec Gen: de Brichambaut 56: Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia and N America World’s largest security oriented intergovernmental organisation 2010 summit: Astana, Kazakhstan

First summit: Helsinki Finland (1975)

IUCN 1948 Gland, Switzerland Dir: Julia Marton, Pres: Ashok Khosla Conservation organisation.

CITES under its aegis.

Publishes ‘Red List’

Eurasian Group on Anti Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (EAG) 2004 Moscow 9: Belarus, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyztan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ujbekistan, Russia, India Is an FATF type regional body



  • 1955, Bandung conference
  • Formally came into being in 1961 at Belgrade at its first conference
  • 118 members
  • 1983 summit: New Delhi
  • Indira Gandhi chaired the 1983 summit
  • Giani Jail Singh & N Sanjeev Reddy were secretary generals of NAM between 1983-1986 (not simultaneously)
  • Present Chairman: Hosni Mubarak (Egypt) <after he stepped down as president there should be some one else>
  • First Sec-Gen: Josip Broz Tito
  • Recent meetings
    • 2006: Havana
    • 2009: Sharm El Sheikh
    • 2011: Belgrade and Jakarta
    • 2012: Kish Island


  • 1985 at Dhaka
  • Idea was proposed by Bangladesh President Zia Ur Rahman
  • HQ: Kathmadu
  • Members 8: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Maldives
  • Afghanistan admitted in the 13th summit: 2005 (Dhaka)
  • Observer: China, Japan, US, S. Korea, EU, Mauritius, Iran, Australia, Myanmar
  • Meetings:
    • 2nd: 1986, Bangalore
    • 8th: 1995, New Delhi
    • 14th: 2007, New Delhi
    • 15th: 2008, Colombo
    • 16th: 2010, Thimpu
    • 17th: 2011, Male
  • Sec Gens
    • First: Abul Ahsan
    • 2nd: Kant Kishore Bhargava
    • 9th: Sheel Kant Sharma
    • 10th: Ms Fathimath Dhiyana Saeed (Incumbant)

The Commonwealth

  • Estd: 1926 (Balfour Declaration)
  • Statute of Westminster: 1931
  • London Declaration: 1949
  • HQ: London
  • Members: 54 <All but two, Mozambique and Rwanda, were formerly part of the British Empire>
  • Sec-Gen: Kamlesh Sharma
  • Chairperson-in-Office: Kamla Persad Bissessar (Trinidad and Tobago)
  • Members of CW are represented in other CW countries by High Commissioners
  • Biennial meeting of Heads of Government of CW
    • 24th meeting: New Delhi in 1983 (Indira Gandhi)
    • 2009: Trinidad and Tobago
    • 2011: Sri Lanka
  • CW Games
    • 1930
    • Current name in 1978
    • Refer CWG-2010 article

Reports of World Bank

  • Global Economic Prospects

UNSECO Reports

  • EFA Global Monitoring Report

UNFPA Reports

  • Millennium Development Goals Report 2010

IMF Reports

  • Global Financial Stability Report
  • World Economic Outlook

Global Financial Stability Report 2011

  • After the crisis, the confidence in the banking sector in many advanced economies not restored
  • Stability improved but vulnerabilities remain due to high government debt in advanced economies
  • Surging capital inflows in the emerging economies can also lead to instability

Classified as per regions

South Asia



Reports 2010


  • “Combating Poverty and Inequality: Structural Change, Social Policy and Politics”
    • Economic growth by itself does not reduce poverty or inequalities.

HDR 2010

Twenty years is a good enough time to assess how countries of the world, irrespective of the economic or political system they follow, have performed in promoting human development. Successive Human Development Reports (HDR), since 1990, have mainstreamed health and education as critical indicators of human progress and contributed to international policy structures. For instance, the Millennium Development Goals, aimed at using international financial resources to reduce global poverty, can be traced to the HDR-1991 on financing development. Significantly, this year’s HDR has made long-term innovations in measuring development. First, it reconfigures its indicators on literacy and income. Replacing ‘gross enrolment’ and ‘adult literacy rates’ with ‘expected years of schooling’ and ‘mean years of schooling’ makes for a deeper understanding of this important socioeconomic attribute, particularly as literacy rates, which are rising around the world, could gloss over structural weaknesses. Replacing ‘Gross Domestic Product’ with ‘Gross National Income’, which includes international income flows, would bring in a fresh perspective on an economy’s standing, particularly in the current globalising context of a country’s poverty reduction programmes. Secondly, HDR-2010 introduces three indices — the Multidimensional Poverty Index, the Gender Inequality Index and the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index — aimed at gaining a deeper appreciation of a country’s development path.

The 2010 Report, The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development, comes as a timely reality check on India’s global standing. It shows that, despite recording a phenomenal economic growth recently, India continues to remain in the bottom-50 on human development — it is placed at 119 out of 169. The report points to critical social failures. Its new indicators on education tell the story of how rising literacy rates are no cause for comfort. The ‘mean years of schooling’ is only 4.4, compared to the global figure of 7.4; and the ‘expected years of schooling’ of 10.3 is short of the global average of 12.3. These are particularly important pointers at a time when India prepares to give its children the right to free and compulsory education. At a theoretical level, it is noteworthy that the report finds a “weak long-term association” between income growth and changes in education and health. This finding, read along with the failure of ‘trickle down’ theories to deliver, only re-emphasises the need to rethink economic growth strategies, particularly in the developing world.

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