Wildlife and its Conservation
Wild life refers to the undomesticated animals living in their natural habitats (forests, grasslands and deserts) an area without human habitation. They are needed for maintaining biological diversity. It also helps in promoting economic activities that generates revenue through tourism. Conservation of forest and wildlife is interrelated with each other.
Decline in Wildlife Population
Wildlife of India is a great natural heritage. Exploitation of wildlife resources has decreased global wildlife population by 52% between 1970 and 2014. Over exploitation and shrinking of forest cover areas has resulted in animals becoming extinct, some are threatened and some are on the verge of extinction. In recent years, increase in human encroachment has posed a threat to India’s wildlife.
Aims of Wildlife Management
The main aim of wildlife conservation are:
- To control and limit exploitation of species.
- To preserve the plants and animals from extinction.
- Maintenance of threatened species and protect species which are on the verge of extinction.
- Preserve the endangered species.
- To study the ecological relationship of the plants and animals in natural habitat.
- Hunting and poaching should be prohibited.
- Establishment of National parks, Wildlife sanctuaries, protected areas and Biosphere reserves.
The Wildlife protection Act was established in 1972. The provisions of the act are
- Prohibit killing and hunting of specified animals.
- Constitute sanctuaries, national parks,and closed areas for wildlife conservation.
- Special schemes for preservation of endangered species.
- Constitute Central Zoo Authority and recognition of zoos.
- Restrict, regulate or prohibit trade in wild animals and products obtained from them.
Organisations Involved in Conservation of Wildlife:
(i) Indian Board for WildLife (IBWL)
(ii) World Wildlife Fund (WWF) for Nature
(iii) World Conservation Union (WCN)
(iv) International Union for Conservation ofNature and Natural resources (IUCN)
(v) Convention of International Trade inEndangered Species (CITES)
(vi) Bombay Natural History Society
(vii) Wild life Preservation Society of India,Dehradun