Architecture


 

Architecture

 

Harappan

  • Drainage system
  • Rectangular intersecting roads
  • Sanitary system

Mauryan

  • Monolithic Pillars
  • Finely carved capitols – Bull capitol and Sarnath capitol
  • Stupas start during this period – 4 gateways
    • Surface built with bricks
  • Viharas and Chaityas
    • Barabar Caves

Shunga – Satvahanas

  • Early classic architecture
  • Carved railings and gateways around Buddhist shrines

Kushan

  • Sculpture developed
  • The emperor himself was a divine authority
  • Buddha was first time given a human form during this time

Gupta period

  • Beginning of Hindu temples – temple at Deoghar, Udaigiri caves in Orissa
  • Vaishnavite temple in Vidisha

Pallavas

  • Mandaps, Rathas and finely carved panels and pillars
  • Shore temple at Mahabs is a structural temple
  • Ratha temple is a rock cut temple
  • Kanchipuram also has temples
    • Panels depict shiva as Natraja
    • History of Pallavas

Cholas

  • Tanjaur Temple: 65 m tall vimana
  • Pillared halls and sculptures depicting Bharata’s natyashastra
  • Fine paintings

Pandyas

  • Built high outerwalls and gopuram
  • Their gopurams can be seen from long distances

Hoysalas

  • Belur and Halebeed temples
  • Profusion of manifold pillars with rich and intricate carvings
  • Panels depict gods and goddesses

Orissa Temples

  • Lingraja temple
    • 40 m high
  • Sun Temple

Nagara, Dravida and Visara

  Nagara Dravida Visara
  Temples called PRASADA   Combination of Dravida and Nagara (Chalukyas).
  Shikhara is curvilinear Shikhara pyramidal  
  No role of pillar Pillar important  
  No tank Tank may be there  
  No enclosure Enclosure and gopuram  
    Vimana  
  Mahadeva Temple Brihadeshwara Eg Some in Khajuraho, Sirpur etc

 

Cave architecture

Progressed in three phases

  • Buddhist Jain Ajivika caves (3rd BC to 2nd AD)
    • Kaneri, Nashik, Udaigiri
  • Ajanta Ellora Cave (5th to 7th AD)
  • Elephanta Ellora and Mahabs (7th to 10th)

Sculpture

Two major schools

  • Gandhara
    • Greco-Roman Style
    • North West India
    • Stone and stucco
  • Madhura
    • Indigenous style
    • UP Bihar
    • White spotted red sandstone used
    • Forms of Brahmanical deities crystallised for the first time in this art form

Themes of Buddha and Bodhisatvas in both.

Share this article

Have any Question or Comment?

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

TN Text Books – Download Here

TamilNadu New School Books – English Medium 👉👉👉 Click Here

TamilNadu New School Books – Tamil Medium 👉👉👉 Click Here

TamilNadu Old School Books – English Medium 👉👉👉 Click Here

TamilNadu Old School Books – Tamil Medium 👉👉👉 Click Here

Important TNPSC Group Exam Links

TNPSC – Previous Year Question Papers 👉👉👉 Click Here

TNPSC Group Exams – Study Materials 👉👉👉 Click Here

Current Affairs Materials – All Competitive Exams 👉👉👉 Click Here

TNPSC – Group 1 Mains – Test Series & Question Bank 👉👉👉 Click Here