TamilNadu Personalities and their Contributions in the
Indian National Movement
V.O. Chidambaram Pillai was a lawyer by profession and he joined the nationalist movement in 1905. He was a follower of Bal Ganghadar Tilak. After the Surat split in 1907, V.O.C. and fellow nationalists started the Chennai Jana Sangam. He led the Coral Mill Strike in February 1908 in Tuticorin. In 1906 he launched the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company in Tuticorin. Hence he was called Kappalottiya Tamilan. There was competition between Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company and British India Steam Navigation Company. V.O.C. advocated the boycott of the British India Steam Navigation Company and this had resulted in the Tirunelveli uprising in March 1908. He was ably assisted by Subramania Siva. Both were arrested and imprisoned. They served six years rigorous imprisonment. They were given harsh punishment inside the prison. V.O.C. was asked to draw an oil press and hence he is known as Chekkilutta Chemmal.
|5th Sep, 1872||1. Born, at Ottapidaram,Tirunelveli
2. Lawyer, in Tirunelveli
3. Encouraged, to formation of:
4. Founder of:
|1905||Partition of Bengal – Drew him, into Politics
Follower of Tilak
|1906||Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company in Tuticorin.
From, Tuticorin to Colombo(Sri Lanka)
|1907||Surat Split, he was attended on that INC Session
After Split, followed Extremism.
|Feb, 1908||Organised, Coral Mill Strike(in Tuticorin)
Result of Strike :-
|Mar, 1908||Tirunelveli Uprisings:-
Subramania Bharathi was a non-conformist, unorthodox and a revolutionary in social and political ideas. He edited the Tamil Weekly India .He wrote nationalist songs called the Swadesa Geethangal. In May 1907 Bharathi brought Bipin Chandra Pal one of the leaders of extremists in the Congress to Madras city.
|11th Dec, 1882||Born at Ettayapuram(Tuticorin)
|1904||Worked as Tamil Teacher(Madurai)|
|1904||Served as, Assistant Editor of Swadeshimitran|
|April, 1907||Editor of:-
|May, 1907||Brought Bipan Chandra Pa, to Madras City|
|1907||Participated in Surat Split
|1909||Gave, Evidence against British in the case of V.O.C
So, British ordered to arrest him.
Escaped to Puducherry(Here, he Publishes his works)
Puducherry publishes banned in 1909
|Nov, 1918||After World War II, he entered British india, near Cuddalore.
Arrested and Released after 3 weeks
End of life – Poverty and Hardship
Rejoined, as Editor of swadeshimitran
|11th Sep, 1921||Died|
S. Satyamurthi of Pudukkottai was one of the important freedom fighters. He led the anti-Simon Campaign in 1929 when the Simon Commission visited Tamil Nadu.
C. Rajagopalachari became the TNCC president in April 1930. Authorized by TNCC and AICC to direct the Salt Satyagraha in Tamil Nadu Rajaji undertook the famous Vedaranyam Salt Satyagraha March. He selected the route from Tiruchirappalli to Vedaranyam in Thanjauvr district. The March began on Tamil New Year’s Day (13th April). The March reached Vedaranyam on 28 April 1930. Two days later Rajagopalachari was arrested for breaking the salt laws. Some of the other important leaders who participated in the Vedaranyam Salt Satyagraha were T.S.S. Rajan, Mrs. Lakshmipathi Sardar Vedaratnam Pillai, C. Swaminatha Chetty and K. Santhanam.
Later, in 1937 when elections were held in accordance with the 1935 Act, Congress won the elections and formed the ministry in Madras headed by C. Rajagopalachari. There were nine other ministers in his cabinet. The ministry was in power from July 1937 to October 1939. The ministry had resigned along with other Congress ministries in the different provinces over the issue of the Indian involvement in the Second World War.
|10th Dec, 1878||Born at Thorappalli(krishnagiri)
Lawyer in Salem.
|1906, Calcutta||Participated and Joined in INC
Follower of Gandhiji
|1907||Participated, Surat Split|
|1930||Led, Salt Satyagraha(Tirchy To Tanjavur)
And Broke salt law at Vedaranyam
|1937||Cheif Minister of Madras Presidency
|1939||Resigned, from Chief Minister Post|
|1947||1st Indian Governor General of Free India|
|1952||Formed, Ministry.Became C.M
Introduced, Kula Kalvi Thittam(Opposed by Kamaraja, E.V.R)
|1954||Resigned, from C.M
Later, resigned from Congress
|1955||Awarded, Bharat Ratna|
|1959||Formed, New Party, as “Swatandra Party”|
|25th Dec, 1972||Died|
At that time E. V. Ramaswami Naicker was the President of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee. C. Rajagopalachari stressed that the council boycott was a central part of the Gandhian Programme. However, this view was not shared by Kasturi Ranga Iyengar, Srinivasa Iyengar, Varadarajulu Naidu and Vijayaraghavachari. In the meantime, Periyar E.V.R. launched the Vaikom Satyagraha in Kerala against the practice of social segregation. Later he resigned from the Congress and came out on the social segregation issue at Seramandevi Guru Kulam of V.V.S. Iyer.
|17th Sep, 1879||Born in Erode
Married at 13th age —- Renounced, 19th age
Gurukulam Style Run School, founded by V.V.S.iyer’s
He noticed, segregation of Non-Brahmins Students from Brahmins(such as water, food)
Protested against this and resigned from Madras Congress Secretaryship.
Why left Congress ?
At Kanchipuram State Congress.
Moved Resolution, for reservation in Government Services to Non-Brahmins.
Not allowed to pass —— So, he resigned.
|1921||Anti-Liquor Campaign, 1000 Coconut trees cutted.|
|1923||President of TNCC. Joined in NCM.|
|1924||Vaikom Satyagraha(in kerala):
People of Downtrodden, prohibited to enter temple.
Finally, Travancore Government allowed them
Called him, as Vaikom Hero
|1920 – 1925||Stressed congress to accept communal Representation|
|1925||Started, Self Respect Movement|
|1938||Periyar Title, given by Women Conference|
|27th june, 1970||Socrates of Asia, announced by UNESCO|
The other important nationalist leader was K. Kamaraj from Virudhunagar. He participated in the Vaikom Satyagraha in 1924 and thus entered nationalist movement. He was the vice-president
and treasurer of the Ramnad District Congress Committee in 1929. From the beginning, Kamaraj was the man of the masses. He spoke in simple and direct language. He had a sound common sense and practical wisdom. He was fully aware of the rural Tamil Nadu. He visited each and every village and understood the different problems of the masses. He always identified himself with the common man of Tamil Nadu. Thus, he really brought the Congress movement to the villages in Tamil Nadu,
|15th July, 1903||Born at Virudupatti(Virudhu Nagar)|
|1924||Entered Freedom Struggle, during Vaikom Satyagraha|
|1930||Participated in Vedaranyam March
Of this, arrested and imprisoned for 2 years in Alipore Jail
After Gandhi – Irwin Pact, he was released.
|1940||Went to wardha(To meet gandhiji, and to get approval for the list of Satyagrahi’s)
Arrested and Jailed in Vellore Jail
|1942||Quit India Movement:
Sentenced to 3 Years, to Amaravathi Prison
|1947||Hoisted, Indian National Flag in Satyamurthi House|
|Served 9 Years as, C.M
|1964 & 1966||King Maker of India(Made Two P.M’s for India):
|2nd Oct, 1975||Died|
Tiruppur Kumaran who led the flag march was fatally beaten. Since he guarded the national flag in
his hands he was called Kodi Kaththa Kumaran. Commemorating his sacrifice the Goverment of India
issued a postal stamp in his honour.
Similarly, the National Movement was encouraged by songs composed by Namakkal Kavinjar Ramalingam Pillai. In his songs he praised the Gandhian methods in the struggle for freedom. He sang that “a war is coming without knife and blood”. This highlighted the Gandhian principle of non-violent struggle against the British.