20 total views, 5 views today
MDGs – Minimum Development Goals
- 189 nations.
8 goals. 21 targets
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
- Halve the proportion of people living on less than $1 a day
- Achieve decent employment for women, men and young people
- Halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
By 2015, all children can complete a full course of primary schooling, girls and boys
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015
Goal 4: Reduce child mortality rates
Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate
Goal 5: Improve maternal health
- Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio
- Achieve by 2015 universal access to reproductive health
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
- Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
- Achieve by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it
- Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
- Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs; reverse loss of environmental resources
- Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss
- Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation
- By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers
Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
6 targets under this
India and MDGs
<refer your essay>
the review of the MDGs held in New York in September 2010 presented stark realities in many countries. the review suggests some success and much failure.
Most rich nations failed to meet the target of promised aid.
In India, programmes such as SSA, ICDS, NREGA, National Drinking Water Mission and Total Sanitation Campaign address crucial MDGs.
However, much more needs to be done in India. There have been criticisms of BPL measure in India with the Sengupta commission putting the number of BPL families as high as 77 percent of the total population. Similarly, the existing rate of malnutrition are very high. About 42 percent of the total undernourished children in the world live in India.
Most of the targets of poverty reduction, maternal mortality and child malnutrition seem unlikely to achieved by 2015.
the stagnation in many social indicators show that the impressive growth and the creation of wealth with economic liberalization have not resulted in social development.
most of the reports in India, say NHRM reports, document increased infrastructure and not the actual outcome related to these infrastructure. We need more direct measures of outcomes.
India’s vast geography and its diversity are major reasons for significant variations across regions. they mandate the need for separate targets, governance, a focus on public health and changes in social structures. Specialized targets for regions and populations. Periodic audits to measure impact.
good governance is necessary. it is an effect multiplier and will have a much greater impact on the country’s MDGs than just finance and infrastructure.
India has seen a gradual reduction in maternal mortality and in under 5 child mortality rate over the past few decades. The 11th five year plan sets out the objective of reducing maternal mortality ratio to 1 per 1000 live births, reducing infant mortality rate to 28 per 1000 live births and reducing Total Fertility Rate to 2.1,all this to be achieved by 2012 the last year of the current plan. India’s commitment to achieving the MDG goals 4 and 5 would require us to meet these targets by the year 2015.
While reviewing the midterm report on progress in reaching the MDGs states:
MDG 5, MMR has taken a quick down turn during 2003-2006 from 301 per 100000 live births in 2001-2003 to 254 per 100000 live births in 2004-06 according to SRS estimates. The MDG target for India is from 447 in 1990-91 to 109 by 2015.At the historical pace of decrease India will reach 135 by 2015.
As per this report the rate of increase in institutional deliveries is slow from 26% in 1992-93 to 47% in 2007-08.Skilled birth attendance at deliveries has increased from 33% to 52% in the same period. By 2015 India can expect only 62% deliveries to be attended by skilled personnel. The rural urban gap in coverage by skilled birth attendants in 2005-06 was 36%.However the projections in institutional delivery have since been greatly accelerated with the introduction of the Janini Suraksha Yojna.
India’s Infant mortality rate declined from 129 deaths per 1000 live births in 1971 to 53 in 2008.The rate of decline has been slowing from 19 points in the 1970s to 16 points in current decade. Currently the urban IMR is 36 as compared to the rural IMR of 58. Total Fertility Rate had reduced from 5.2 in 1971 to 2.6 in 2008.In all but six states at current rates of decline India would be able to achieve replacement levels by 2015.However these six states account for much of the population and there is much to be done before these modest goals are achieved.