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Two environmental priorities internationally now are:
- Climate Change Mitigation
- Biodiversity Conservation
Convention on Biodiversity
CBD has failed in its original goal of reduce the loss of biodiversity significantly by 2010. Next meeting of CBD is scheduled for 2012 in New Delhi.
On biosafety. It is a part of the CBD.
On wetlands. 1972. 25 sites from India
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
On the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade.
Signed: 1998 Effective: 2004
Signatories: 73 Parties: 128
On Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of POPs.
Signed: 2001 Effective: 2004
Signatories: 152 Parties: 169
On the control of transboundary movements of hazardous waste and their disposal
Signed: 1989 Effective: 1992
Signatories: 51 Parties: 175
CA is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes or practice, guidelines and other recommendations relating to foods, food production and food safety developed by the FAO and WHO.
On export controls for conventional arms and dual use goods and technologies. It is a multilateral export control regime with 40 participating states (india is not yet a member: Nov 2010). Its secretariat is located in Vienna.
It is the successor to the cold war era Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls.
The Australia Group
The Australia Group (AG) is an informal forum of countries which, through the harmonisation of export controls, seeks to ensure that exports do not contribute to the development of chemical or biological weapons.
Missile Technology Control Regime
The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) is an informal and voluntary partnership between 34 countries to prevent the proliferation of missile and unmanned aerial vehicle technology capable of carrying a 500 kg payload at least 300 km.
|Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty||1972||US-Soviet Union||To limit ABM systems used in defending areas against missile delivered nuclear weapons
US unilaterally withdrew in 2002
|Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)||1996/Not in force||Will come into force 180 days after it is ratified by all 44 annex 2 countries. India, US, Pakistan, Israel are Annex 2 countries.
India, Pak, N. Korea havnt signed
|Partial Test Ban Treaty||1963||Banned nuclear tests in atmosphere, underwater and in space.|
|NPT||1968/1970||189||Major non-parties: India, Pakistan, North Korea, Israel.
N Korea withdrew in 2003.
Iran is a party
3 pillars: non proliferation, disarmament, peaceful use
|Interim Agreement on Offensive Arms (SALT I)||1972||US-Soviet Union|
|Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT II)||1979||US-Soviet Union||Replaced SALT I. US withdrew from SALT II in 1986.|
|Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty||1987||Global ban on short and long range nuclear weapons systems, as well as intrusive verification regime|
|Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I)||1991/1994||US-Soviet independent states||Limited long range nuclear forces|
|START II||1993/never put into force||Russia – US|
|Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT or Moscow treaty)||2002/2003||Ambiguous. US and Russia agreed to reduce their strategic nuclear warheads to between 1700 and 2200 by 2012|
|New START||2010/2011||Russia – US||Replaces SORT. Reduces nuclear warheads by about half. Will remain into force until at least 2021.|
International Conference on Disarmament and Non-Proliferation was held in Tehran in 2010. US didn’t attend.
|Biological Weapons Convention||1972/1975||163||Bans the production of biological and toxin weapons|
|Chemical Weapons Convention||1993/1997||188||Depository: UN Sec Gen
Prohibits the use and production of chemical weapons
Non-parties: Angola, Burma, Egypt, Israel, N. Korea, Somalia, Syria
|Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons||1981/1983||109||Restricts the use of certain excessively injurious conventional weapons|
|Convention on Cluster Munitions||2008/2010||Parties: 108. Sign: 55||Prohibits the use, transfer and stockpile of cluster bombs|
|Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage||1963/1977||Operator’s liability limit at not less than 300 mn SDR|
|UN Convention on the Law of the Sea||1982||Defines territorial waters. Territorial sea – upto 12 nm
Contiguous zone – from 12 nm upto 24 nm
EEZ: from 12 nm to 200 nm (includes contiguous zone)