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Poverty alleviation programmes:
The problem of poverty eradication is one of providing employmentand raising the productivity of low level of employment. The following measures have been taken by the government to remove poverty from the country.
1. Land Reforms
Land reforms legislation has been passed by the state governments, which aim at improving the economic conditions of agricultural landless labourers. For instance, with the abolition of the Zamindari system, the exploitation associated with the system has been removed. Tenancy Laws have been passed in most of the states for protecting the interests of the tenants and helping them to acquire possession over the lands they cultivate.
Every state has passed the necessary legislation fixing ceiling on agricultural holdings by which the maximum amount of land which a person can hold has been fixed by law. The surplus lands thus acquired were to be distributed to the landless labourers and small peasants.
2. Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY)
It was introduced in April 1999 as a successor to Jawahar Rozgar Yojana on a cost sharing basis of 75 : 25 between the Union and States.
3. National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP)
It was launched on August 15, 1995 to provide social assistance benefits to poor households affected by old age, death of primary bread winner or need for maternity care.
4. Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS)
It was started on October 2, 1993 in 1778 backward blocks in drought prone, desert, tribal and hill areas. It was expanded to cover all the 5,488 rural blocks of the country. It gave wage employment to the rural poor. In 47 September 2001, it was merged into new Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana along with Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana.
5. Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY)
It was introduced in the Budget for 2000-2001 with an allocation of Rs. 5,000 crore. Its focus is on health, primary education, drinking water, housing and rural roads.